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Javanese Prehistory Civilization

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Javanese Prehistory civilization has begun since about a million years ago. Evidence by the finding of Megantrophus Paleojavanicus (big man from Ancient Java) at Sangiran in 1941 by G.H.R Von Koenigswald. Around 600,000 years ago, since paleolithic, Java Indonesia also inhabited by Homo erectus paleojavanicus. After Homo erectus paleojavanicus era, Java is inhabited by Homo erectus soloensis. The fossils were found in the Bengawan Solo river, near Sragen regency, Central Java, in 1941.

At least since 2000 BC, Java island was inhabited by homo sapiens (modern human), since the migration of ethnic Deutro Malay from Yunnan, southern China. Since the early centuries, the Javanese has established trade and cultural relations with India and China. So the foreign cultures began to enter, such as the Hindu culture. This is evidenced by the discovery of the inscribed monument stones (prasasti / inscription) from that era, such inscribed monument stones that found in the Ciaruteun, Bogor. From the inscriptions it is known there is one of Java early kingdoms named Tarumanagara (358-669 AD). Purnavarman (395-434 AD) was the most popular king.

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Javanese Prehistoric Civilization

Medang or Mataram kingdom was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries in central Java (nowadays). The first king is Sanjaya. In 750-850 AD, Sailendra dynasty then became the ruler of Mataram. Sailendra built the Borobudur temple which completed its construction in 825, in King Samaratunga era. Mataram collapsed in around 1045 AD due the attacks of Srivijaya kingdom of Sumatra.

Meanwhile, in the years 669-1579 Sunda kingdom flourished in West Java. Sunda kingdom ruled by Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa.

In 1222, Ken Arok founded the one of Java early kingdoms named Singhasari Kingdom (1222-1292), East Java (nowadays). He ruled the kingdom until year 1292. In 1227 Anusapati kill Ken Arok. Anusapati later became king Singhasari. Anusapati only lasted 20 years. He was killed by Tohjaya. Three years later, Tohjaya killed in the rebellion led by Jaya Visnuvardhana.

Year 1268, Jaya Visnuvardhana died, he was replaced by Kertanegara (1268-1292). In year 1292, Kertanegara was defeated by Jayakatwang rebellion, also this is the end of the Singhasari Kingdom.

In 1294, the most important history of Java Indonesia Majapahit Kingdom (1293-1500) stand. This kingdom in java found by Raden Wijaya. Majapahit reached the top of glory during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. He was accompanied by its mahapatih (prime minister) Gajah Mada. With Gajah Mada, Hayam Wuruk had mastered almost the entire Indonesia territory which was named Dwipantara. In 1389, Hayam Wuruk died. Then replaced by Wikramawardhana.

The Islam arrival also take a great affect to Java Indonesia history. One of the Islam’s central development in Java was the Demak Sultanate (1475-1548) in Central Java. This kingdom in java was established by Raden Hasan. He was later titled Shah Akbar Al Fatah, or more commonly known by the name of Raden Patah. At Trenggono era (1521), the Demak sultanate develop into a kind of federal state with Islam as its foundation.

During this period, the Samudera Pasai kingdom in Sumatra attacked by Portuguese. This situation is forcing a nobleman named Fatahillah to get away from Sumatra. He moved to Demak, Central Java. Fatahillah later married with the sister of Sultan Trenggana (1522-1548) and appointed as the Army Commander of Demak Sultanate. Fatahillah then attacked and took over the important cities of Sunda Kingdom, including Cirebon and Banten Indonesia.